Glossary of Terms

2018 Farm Bill – Landmark legislation signed into law on December 20, 2018. The law de-scheduled hemp from the United States Controlled Substance Act and authorized the agricultural production of hemp in the United States. Hemp was defined as cannabis containing less than 0.3% delta8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Anandamide – a natural endocannabinoid known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). It is a fatty acid neurotransmitter that is also known as the bliss molecule due to its impact on euphoria, mood, and analgesia. Chemically and structurally similar to the cannabinoid Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Bioavailability – a pharmacology term that describes the proportion (%) of a drug or other substance that actually enters the circulation when introduced and is able to have an active effect.

Cannabichromene (CBC) – A non-intoxicating cannabinoid made by the cannabis plant. CBC is considered one of the big six cannabinoids targeted for medical research. Effects are believed to be similar to CBD. 

Cannabidiol (CBD) – A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant that accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s total extract. It is the most abundant cannabinoid after THC and is suspected and being researched for a significant number of medicinal properties. 

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) – A minor cannabinoid that is structurally very similar to CBD. It is being targeted by researchers for the treatment of seizures and epilepsy in children.

Cannabigerol (CBG) – A minor non-intoxicating cannabinoid that is being researched for potential medicinal purposes.   

Cannabinoids – A group of closely related molecular compounds that comprise many of the bioactive properties of cannabis.

Cannabinol (CBN) – A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, CBN is produced when THC begins to breakdown. 

Cannabis – A genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed, but it is primarily comprised of cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis.

Cannabis sativa – An annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. Sativa plants are generally taller and produce more fiber, which made them the original target of hemp cultivation.

Cannabis indica – An annual plant in the family Cannabaceae. Cannabis indica produces large amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The higher concentrations of THC provide euphoric and intoxicating effects making it popular for use as both a recreational and medicinal drug. Indica plants are shorter, bushier, and less suitable for farming or industrial purposes.

Cannabis ruderalis – A low-THC variety or subspecies of cannabis which is native to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cannabis ruderalis strains are typically high in the cannabÑ–noid Cannabidiol (CBD), so they are often cultivated for use in CBD products. 

CBD – The three letter designation for Cannabidiol.

CBD Vape – Concentrated CBD oil that is placed in a cartridge, JUUL pod, or other delivery device to be vaporized and inhaled for rapid absorption in the lungs.  

CB1 – A cannabinoid receptor on human cells that make up part of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). THC is a direct agonist to this receptor and is responsible for the psychotropic high associated with cannabis use. The primary endogenous (human-produced) agonist of the human CB1 receptor is anandamide.

CB2 – A cannabinoid receptor on human cells that make up part of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). Whereas cannabinoid interaction with CB1 receptors produces effects on mood, pain, and euphoria, it is suspected that cannabinoid interaction with CB2 receptors causes effects primarily on the immune system.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency – A theory that suggests that in some cases, the body doesn’t produce enough endocannabinoids or enough receptors for the endocannabinoid system to function properly. As a result, the many functions aren’t regulated properly and the body becomes unbalanced, allowing diseases to arise.

Distillate – A runny, translucent oil devoid of the waxes or undesirable compounds from the original cannabis plant. Distillate is desirable due to its potency and versatility.

Dose – The amount of CBD (or other compound) found within a designated serving size. Doses are generally measured in milligrams (mg).

Endocannabinoids – The endogenous (human produced) ligands that interact with cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) in the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). A growing body of evidence has emerged to reflect on the role of the ECS in the regulation of several physiological conditions and numerous diseases.

Endocannabinoid System (ECS) – A biological neurotransmission system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous, lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) to produce a host of biological responses.

Entourage effect – The combined effects of all botanical compounds ingested in the cannabis plant, rather than in isolation. The theory is that by using the whole hemp plant rather than a singular aspect, there’s a boost in the health benefits and overall therapeutic effect of cannabinoids.

Flavonoids – Various compounds found naturally in cannabis, as well as many fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids help regulate cellular activity and fight off free radicals that cause oxidative stress on your body.  

Flower – The dried buds of the cannabis plant. Hemp generally can contain varying levels of CBD with some strains reaching 25% Cannabidiol, in addition to a full spectrum of other cannabinoids. CBD flowers can be inhaled directly through smoking or vaping, or processed to extract CBD oil for other CBD products. 

Hemp – Cannabis that contains less than 0.3% delta8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by dry weight.

Hydrophobic – This literally means water-hating. CBD oil is hydrophobic, which is to say that it does not readily mix with water in its natural form.

Isolate – CBD isolate is a white crystalline substance composed solely of CBD molecules where all of the other plant cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids have been extracted out. Usually very pure (in the 98-99% range).

Nanoemulsion – A process in which the bioavailability of CBD is improved. In its normal state, CBD has poor water-solubility. Nanoemulsion breaks the rather large CBD molecule into much smaller particles and increases its relative surface mass. This improves the water solubility and improves bioavailability up to 200%.

Neurotransmitters – The body’s chemical messengers. They are the molecules used by the nervous system to transmit messages to cells to stimulate a cellular response. 

Phytocannabinoids – Synthesized cannabinoids from the cannabinus plant.

Psychoactive – A substance or drug that alters or affects the mind. This term is used interchangeably with psychotropic.

Psychotropic – A substance or drug that alters or affects the mind. This term is used interchangeably with psychoactive.

Receptors – Cellular receptors are proteins either inside a cell or on its surface, which receive a signal from passing molecules (such as Neurotransmitters).

Sublingual – Dosage that is taken under the tongue.

Terpene – Highly aromatic compounds that determine the smell of many plants and herbs, such as rosemary and lavender. They are found in unusual abundance in the cannabis plant and are considered bioactive, which means they may affect the body. Terpenes also form the basis for essential oils and underpin the practice of aromatherapy. 

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – The most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis. It binds directly to the CB1 receptor and creates the psychoactive high associated with the cannabis plant. THC is believed to be the only psychoactive (or mind-altering) cannabinoid. Hemp must contain no more than 0.3% THC in order to be considered hemp. 

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) – Unlike THC, THCA is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in raw and live cannabis. As the plant dries, THCA slowly converts to THC. Heat expedites this conversion in a process known as decarboxylation.

Tincture – A substance that CBD is suspended in, such as a carrier oil or alcohol, that is to be absorbed sublingually (under the tongue). Usually comes in a glass bottle with a calibrated dropper for precise dosing.